What is periodontal microbiology?

Periodontal microbiology is a fascinating branch of microbiology that focuses on the study of the microorganisms that inhabit the oral cavity and their relationship to periodontal health and disease. The mouth harbors a diverse community of bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms that coexist in a delicate balance. When this balance is disturbed, periodontal problems, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, can arise. In this article we are going to teach you what periodontal microbiology is, its importance in oral health and how advances in this discipline are transforming dental care.

Mouth and Periodontal Microbiology

The mouth is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that harbors thousands of different species of microorganisms. For the most part, these bacteria are harmless and, in fact, some are beneficial to oral health. However, some bacterial strains can become pathogenic and trigger periodontal diseases.

The key factor in periodontal microbiology is dental biofilm, a sticky layer of bacteria that forms on the surface of the teeth and gums. When bacteria adhere to the teeth and multiply, they can form biofilm, which can be difficult to remove with simple daily oral hygiene.

When is periodontal microbiology necessary?

Two of the most common periodontal problems are gingivitis and periodontitis, and both are linked to periodontal microbiology.

  • Gingivitis: Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gums caused by the accumulation of bacterial plaque at the gum line. Symptoms include red, swollen and bleeding gums. At this early stage, gingivitis is reversible with good oral hygiene and regular cleanings at the dentist.
  • Periodontitis: If gingivitis is left untreated, it can progress to periodontitis, a more serious form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, bacteria invade the supporting structures of the teeth, including the bone, which can lead to tooth loss and other health problems. Treatment of periodontitis often requires more invasive procedures, such as deep cleaning or even surgery.

Periodontal microbiology treatment

The study of periodontal microbiology is fundamental to understanding the etiology and treatment of periodontal diseases. Researchers have identified numerous bacterial species associated with periodontal disease, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. These bacteria can cause inflammation and tissue damage in the gums and bone.

Research in periodontal microbiology has also led to the development of new treatment strategies. For example, antimicrobial therapies and specific vaccines are being investigated to combat pathogenic periodontal bacteria and restore the balance of the oral microbiota.

How to avoid periodontal diseases?

Periodontal microbiology stresses the importance of good oral hygiene in the prevention of periodontal diseases. Regular removal of bacterial plaque through brushing, flossing and mouth rinsing is essential to maintain balance in the oral microbiota. In addition, regular visits to the dentist for professional cleanings are essential to remove accumulated dental biofilm.

Advantages of periodontal microbiology

  1. Early detection: Research in microbiology has led to the development of tests that can identify pathogenic periodontal bacteria in early stages. This allows for faster and more effective intervention to prevent the progression of periodontal diseases.
  2. Personalized therapies: By better understanding the microbiology of a patient's mouth, dentists can design customized therapies to treat periodontal diseases. This may include the use of specific antimicrobials or even gene therapies in the future.
  3. Focus on prevention: Periodontal microbiology has highlighted the importance of prevention in oral health. Dental health professionals are now taking a more proactive approach to educating patients about the importance of oral hygiene and regular dental visits.
  4. Oral microbiome research: Periodontal microbiology is also contributing to research on the oral microbiome as a whole. This could lead to advances in understanding how the oral microbiota affects overall health and how therapies can be developed to treat systemic conditions related to the mouth.


Periodontal microbiology is an exciting discipline that sheds light on the complex relationship between oral microorganisms and oral health. Understanding this science is critical to preventing and treating periodontal diseases, and it is also driving the evolution of dental care. By maintaining good oral hygiene and staying informed about the latest advances in periodontal microbiology, we can keep our smiles healthy and prevent periodontal problems.

If you are looking for a dental treatment to act immediately against infections or bacteria contact the clinics of B & J Dental Clinic at the Horseshoe y Gabias. We are specialists in Periodontal microbiology.